How To Protect The Family Home From Medicaid Recovery
June 6, 2011
Because the home is the largest asset a couple can keep while still qualifying for Medicaid, it is also usually the main target of estate recovery.
Sidney and Rachel’s Story:
Sidney and Rachel had lived in their home since it was new. They built it just after Sidney got a promotion to regional sales manager for a shoe distributor. Through the years, the house was remodeled twice and expanded to add a loft bedroom. Even when their children were grown with families of their own, they all remained close, with frequent family gatherings for holidays and birthdays.
Sidney and Rachel had paid off the mortgage and two second mortgages before Sidney retired. So in addition to being the center of family life, the house had also become the couple’s biggest asset.
Rachel always hoped the house would remain in the family when she and Sidney were gone. She often talked about leaving it to their oldest son, Mark, who promised that he and his wife would continue the tradition of hosting the family for holidays and birthday dinners. However, as Sidney’s Alzheimer’s disease progressed, Rachel worried that Sidney would need to move into a nursing home. With the high cost of long-term care, Rachel knew their savings wouldn’t last long. Sidney would eventually need to qualify for Medicaid to pay the bills.
Her biggest question was, “Will I lose my home?”
A Common Question Indeed
For a great many people who need Medicaid benefits for long term care, the home makes up most of their life savings. Often, it’s all a couple has to pass on to their children.
You may not know that the home is an exempt asset according to Medicaid. It continues to be exempt as long as the community spouse lives there. However, after both the ill spouse and the healthy spouse pass away, the property may no longer be protected.
What Is Estate Recovery?
According to the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (OBRA-93), the state has the right to take back whatever it paid for the care of a Medicaid applicant. And because you have to be “broke” to qualify for Medicaid, usually the only property of substantial value that a person on Medicaid is likely to own when they die is their own home. When OBRA-93 was passed, each state established an Estate Recovery Unit (ERU) to go out and find what assets they can take back from those that received Medicaid benefits!
Because the home is the largest asset a couple can keep (while still qualifying for Medicaid), in most states it is also the main target of estate recovery.
After both the community spouse and the ill spouse die, the state’s estate recovery unit has the authority to take just about any property that the Medicaid recipient had their name on. In most cases, that means going back to the house.
For example, if Sidney dies before Rachel after living in a nursing home for two years and Medicaid has paid the nursing home $3,000 per month, the state will have paid $72,000 for Sidney’s care ($3,000 per month times 24 months). If the family home where Rachel lives is worth $100,000, the state would have a claim for the first $72,000 that comes from the sale of the house.
So, the house is protected while Rachel is alive. However, when she passes, the state may force the sale of the house. Whatever’s left over after Medicaid is paid back ($100,000 minus the $72,000 taken out to repay Medicaid) would go to their children.
A Married Couple Strategy For Protecting The Family Home From Recovery
According to federal law, a married Medicaid applicant is allowed to transfer the home to his or her spouse – without any penalty. Once the transfer is made (meaning the ill spouse no longer has any interest in the house), the community spouse may be able to make some changes to that asset. In some states the community spouse can even give the house away!
That sort of gift, of course, would create a period of Medicaid ineligibility if the community spouse needs nursing home care within the five-year look-back period.
The family home remains one of the most difficult assets to protect because of timing, but there are proven strategies that make it possible to protect the home from Medicaid Recovery.
The National Care Planning Council provides a resource for long term care planning with educational information and lists of professional elder care service providers.